01 November 2010

Load Frequency Control

Modern day power systems are divided into various areas. For example in India , there are five regional grids, e.g., Eastern Region, Western Region etc. Each of these areas is generally interconnected to its neighboring areas. The transmission lines that connect an area to its neighboring area are called tie-lines . Power sharing between two areas occurs through these tie-lines. Load frequency control, as the name signifies, regulates the power flow between different areas while holding the frequency constant. 

As we have in  that the system frequency rises when the load decreases if ΔPref is kept at zero. Similarly the frequency may drop if the load increases. However it is desirable to maintain the frequency constant such that Δf=0 . The power flow through different tie-lines are scheduled - for example, area- i may export a pre-specified amount of power to area- j while importing another pre-specified amount of power from area- k . However it is expected that to fulfill this obligation, area- i absorbs its own load change, i.e., increase generation to supply extra load in the area or decrease generation when the load demand in the area has reduced. While doing this area- i must however maintain its obligation to areas j and k as far as importing and exporting power is concerned. A conceptual diagram of the interconnected areas is shown in Fig. 5.4. 

Fig. 5.4 Interconnected areas in a power system. 

We can therefore state that the load frequency control (LFC) has the following two objectives:
  • Hold the frequency constant ( Δf = 0) against any load change. Each area must contribute to absorb any load change such that frequency does not deviate.
  • Each area must maintain the tie-line power flow to its pre-specified value.
The first step in the LFC is to form the area control error (ACE) that is defined as

where Ptie and Psch are tie-line power and scheduled power through tie-line respectively and the constant Bf is called the frequency bias constant

The change in the reference of the power setting ΔPref, i , of the area- i is then obtained by the feedback of the ACE through an integral controller of the form

where Ki is the integral gain. The ACE is negative if the net power flow out of an area is low or if the frequency has dropped or both. In this case the generation must be increased. This can be achieved by increasing ΔPref, i . This negative sign accounts for this inverse relation between ΔPref, i and ACE. The tie-line power flow and frequency of each area are monitored in its control center. Once the ACE is computed and ΔPref, i is obtained from (5.28), commands are given to various turbine-generator controls to adjust their reference power settings. 

Coordination Between LFC And Economic Dispatch 

Both the load frequency control and the economic dispatch issue commands to change the power setting of each turbine-governor unit. At a first glance it may seem that these two commands can be conflicting. This however is not true. A typical automatic generation control strategy is shown in Fig. 5.5 in which both the objective are coordinated. First we compute the area control error. A share of this ACE, proportional to αi , is allocated to each of the turbine-generator unit of an area. Also the share of unit- i , γi X Σ( PDK - Pk ), for the deviation of total generation from actual generation is computed. Also the error between the economic power setting and actual power setting of unit- i is computed. All these signals are then combined and passed through a proportional gain Ki to obtain the turbine-governor control signal.
Fig. 5.5 Automatic generation control of unit-i.


Naviya Nair said...

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